study, entitled Quality of Life of Adolescents Raised
From Birth by Lesbian Mothers, surveyed 78 17-year-olds with
lesbian mothers. They were matched on gender, age, parental
education, and ethnic background with adolescents in
heterosexual-parent families that were drawn from a representative
The adolescents in both groups gave a numerical score (0 =
minimum; 10= maximum) to each of a series of statements on hapiness
The adolescents with lesbian mothers responded generally in the
same way as the teenagers with heterosexual parents, it found.
"Consistently, over the past three decades,
researchers have found that the daughters and sons of same-sex
parents are psychologically well-adjusted. And now our new data
demonstrate that 17-year-olds raised from birth by lesbian mothers
are as happy as their peers," said lead author Loes van Gelderen,
MSc, University of Amsterdam.
The study - published in the Journal of Developmental and
Behavioral Pediatrics - also found, among teens with
lesbian mothers, no difference in quality of life based on donor
status (whether they had been conceived by known or unknown
donors), experienced stigmatization (whether or not they had
experienced discrimination), or maternal relationship continuity
(whether their mothers were still together or had separated).
"The favorable outcomes for these adolescents are a reflection
of good parenting by mothers who prepared their daughters and sons
for the prospect of adversity," said Principal Investigator Nanette
Gartrell, MD, of the Williams Institute.